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土木工程开启了碳纤维的新版图

文章出处:责任编辑:admin人气:发表时间:2015-06-19 17:58:57【
碳纤维等FRP在土木工程中的应用,为我国碳纤维应用的发展探索出一条新路径,即依靠应用端的发展,来带动整个材料的产业化。

在今年1月举行的国家科技奖励大会上,中冶建筑研究总院作为第一完成单位完成的“土木工程用高性能纤维复合材料制备及应用关键技术”荣获国家科技进步奖二等奖。

据了解,高性能纤维复合材料(简称FRP)具有轻质、高强、耐腐、可设计等优点,可显著提高土木工程结构的性能,延长其使用寿命。而上述奖项的颁发,也让作为高性能纤维复合材料之一的碳纤维,再次进入人们关注的视野。

中冶建筑研究总院院长岳清瑞在近日举行的一次学术交流会上指出,从我国碳纤维的应用来看,航空领域市场尚未打开,能源领域尚未形成稳定市场,体育休闲领域对成本要求很高。而在土木工程领域,据统计,国产碳纤维每年有40%用于结构的加固和补强上,因此是重要的应用方向。

发展困境

据相关市场研究机构数字,2015年前,全球碳纤维市场需求将保持13%的增长,我国对碳纤维的需求增速则快于全球。预测到2015年,我国碳纤维总体需求将达1.6万吨。

事实上,从研发角度看,我国碳纤维的起步并不晚。早在20世纪60年代,中科院长春应化所便率先开始聚丙烯腈基碳纤维的研究,并于上世纪70年代初完成了连续化中试装置。此后,中科院山西煤炭化学研究所、北京化工大学等也开始了相关研究。

产业化方面,进入21世纪后,国产碳纤维发展开始加速,产能大幅提高。2012年,我国已有30多家企业从事碳纤维的研发和生产,建成产能已经突破1万吨。此外,国内还有大量的在建和规划建设的碳纤维生产线。

不过在赛迪方略总部经济研究中心总经理冀志宏看来,国内碳纤维项目遍地开花背后,也存在着不少问题。

首先是产能利用率低。虽然国内的建成产能已经突破1万吨,但实际产量仅为2000吨左右,产能利用率仅有0.2%。而国际上大多数企业的产能利用率为0.7%~0.9%。





冀志宏指出,国内碳纤维生产线产能利用率低,并不是因为下游市场需求不足,而是因为难以生产出合格的产品。他进一步指出,生产碳纤维工序复杂,从聚合、纺丝,到氧化、碳化、表面处理等,任何一个生产环节出了问题,都可能影响碳纤维的性能。“国产原丝大多杂质含量高、质量稳定性差、变异系数大,没有好的原料,怎么生产出好的产品?”

其次,我国碳纤维在高端产品方面也有待突破。冀志宏指出,以占碳纤维产量90%以上的丙烯腈基碳纤维为例,在世界范围内,工业应用和体育休闲的比例分别为75.7%和24.3%,而在中国,这个比例却分别是20%和80%。此外,冀志宏认为,国内碳纤维产业缺乏完善、权威的评价体系,这也是制约国产碳纤维发展的原因之一。

寻找突破点

在上述背景下,虽然我国近年来碳纤维产能快速扩张,但大多为相对低品质的产品,与国外相比差距明显,因此这种产能的扩张,也在一定程度上加剧了碳纤维的结构性过剩。

在岳清瑞看来,碳纤维在土木工程领域的应用,有望改变上述局面。他指出,与航空、能源和体育休闲领域相比,碳纤维在土木工程领域的应用更具前景。

而岳清瑞也带领自己的团队与其他高校合作,对碳纤维在土木工程领域的应用进行了一系列的探索,并开发出板材、筋材、布材等产品。

同时,由于碳纤维的特点是强度较高,延伸性较差,岳清瑞和其团队便尝试将碳纤维和其他纤维混合,增加材料的断裂延伸率。“混杂纤维可以充分发挥不同纤维的优势,扬长避短,在提高结构延伸性、耗能能力和变形恢复能力等方面有可能优于单一品种的纤维,且降低成本。”岳清瑞说。

在岳清瑞看来,碳纤维等FRP的一个重要领域就是结构加固和改造。比如,可以将纤维网格型材固定于混凝土构件表面,然后喷射或手工镘抹聚合物水泥砂浆与原有混凝土一体化,从而提高结构的承载能力及耐久性。

碳纤维另一个重要应用方向是海洋(海港)环境。当前我国正着力开发海洋资源,将FRP和混凝土组合,则能有效解决开发过程中防止海水腐蚀这一重要问题。

以应用带动产业化

碳纤维等FRP在土木工程中的应用,也为我国碳纤维应用的发展探索出一条新路径,即依靠应用端的发展,来带动整个材料的产业化。

“此次中冶建研总院的突破值得肯定,这不仅标志着我国科技研发实力的大幅提升,还有助于带动碳纤维产业科研攻关、设备制造等工作的有效开展。”中投顾问高级研究员贺在华对《中国科学报》记者指出。

事实上,我国发展碳纤维的思路也正在发生转变。“以前国家主要支持碳纤维产品的生产,现在则更支持应用的发展,希望把应用领域做大之后,反过来促进生产企业的发展。”岳清瑞说。

此外,碳纤维机器复合材料产业技术创新战略联盟也于2013年10月被科技部纳入国家产业技术创新战略试点联盟。在2013年12月该联盟举行的第一届理事会上,工信部高新司副司长胡世辉指出,联盟要以提高国产碳纤维竞争力为己任,将市场需求作为指定行业发展战略的重要参考,以市场为导向,结合产学研力量,围绕共性关键问题,组织全行业力量推动国产碳纤维行业的技术创新。

冀志宏也充分强调了碳纤维产品与应用的衔接。他指出,碳纤维上下游产业关联度非常紧密,比如要开发一个碳纤维下游的新产品,光靠碳纤维生产商很难完成。因此,政府要充分发挥协调配置能力,通过联盟等行业组织,围绕下游产业发展重点,构建产、学、研、用多方面协调发展的完整产业链。

贺在华则认为,各项扶持政策亟须制定并落实到位。“土地、税收、补贴、电价、科研等政策若能及时实施,企业进行科研创新的积极性便会被调动起来。”


应用设计案例:



The first-ever building to have a carbon fibre structure is a mobile studio-cum-stage by Japanese architects Atelier Bow-Wow, which just opened in New York.



The BMW Guggenheim Lab comprises a black mesh-clad box, elevated by the lightweight framework that makes it easily transportable.



Nestled between two existing buildings, the structure shelters a courtyard studio that is open to the street at both ends.



A rigging of lighting, screens, audio equipment and other tools is suspended behind the mesh and can be lowered into the studio for different activities.



A timber hut provides a cafe for visitors where picnic benches are sheltered beneath a fabric canopy.



The lab is hosting a series of programs around the theme of comfort in the city, including talks, exhibitions, discussions, screenings, workshops and games.



As part of a six-year tour of mobile studios, the lab will later be relocated to Berlin and Mumbai, before being replaced by a new structure and theme.



The project was commissioned by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and is sponsored by automotive company BMW.



Two other projects by Atelier Bow-Wow from the Dezeen archive include a townhouse renovation and a gallery of stacked concrete boxes - see both projects here.





Architecture and Graphic Design

The mobile structure for the first cycle of the BMW Guggenheim Lab has been designed by the Tokyo-based Atelier Bow-Wow as a lightweight and compact “traveling toolbox.” The 2,200-square-foot structure can easily fit into dense neighborhoods and be transported from city to city. In New York, the two-story structure is nestled between two buildings on a three-quarter-acre T-shaped site; at its southern end, it opens out onto an inviting landscaped public space and cafe.

The lower half of the BMW Guggenheim Lab structure is an open space that can be configured to meet the particular needs of the various programs, shifting from a formal lecture setting with a stage to the scene for a celebratory gathering or a workshop. The upper, “toolbox” portion of the structure is loosely wrapped in two layers of semitransparent mesh, which creates a shimmering moiré effect and allows visitors to catch glimpses of the extensive apparatus of “tools” that can be raised or lowered on a rigging system to configure the lower space for the different programs. Remarkably, the BMW Guggenheim Lab is the first building designed with a structural framework composed of carbon fiber. Videos and images of the structure and the construction process can be viewed at youtube.com/bmwguggenheimlab and flickr.com/bmwguggenheimlab.

“Rather than architects educating the public on how to behave within spaces, it is the public who should have the autonomy of spatial practice in their cities,” stated Yoshiharu Tsukamoto and Momoyo Kaijima of Atelier Bow-Wow. “We have always been advocates of people regaining ownership in order to shape the city around them, and are very pleased to participate in the launch of the BMW Guggenheim Lab. We always conceived the Lab as a public space without enclosure.”

The inaugural BMW Guggenheim Lab will leave behind permanent improvements to the once-vacant East Village lot on which it sits, including the stabilization and paving of the site, replacement of sidewalks, and new wrought-iron fencing and gates.

The graphic identity of the BMW Guggenheim Lab has been developed by Seoul-based graphic designers Sulki & Min.



BMW Guggenheim Lab Team

The BMW Guggenheim Lab is organized by David van der Leer, Assistant Curator, Architecture and Urban Studies, and Maria Nicanor, Assistant Curator, Architecture, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Selected by an international Advisory Committee composed of experts from various disciplines, the members of the New York Lab Team are: Omar Freilla, a Bronx, New York–based environmental justice activist, cooperative developer, and founder and coordinator of Green Worker Cooperatives; Charles Montgomery, Canadian journalist and urban experimentalist, who investigates the link between urban design and well-being; Olatunbosun Obayomi, Nigerian microbiologist and inventor and 2010 TEDGlobal Fellow; and architects and urbanists Elma van Boxel and Kristian Koreman of the Rotterdam-based architecture studio ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles].

Public Information and Amenities

The BMW Guggenheim Lab and all programs are free and open to the public on a first-come, first-served basis during operating hours. Advance registration for selected programs will be available online. Hours of operation are 1 to 9 pm on Wednesdays and Thursdays, 1 to 10 pm on Fridays, and 10 am to 10 pm on Saturdays and Sundays. The 42-seat BMW Guggenheim Lab cafe, operated by the Brooklyn-based restaurant Roberta’s, is open 1 to 9 pm on Wednesdays to Fridays and 10 am to 9 pm on Saturdays and Sundays.

Future Venues

Following the New York presentation, the BMW Guggenheim Lab will move on to Berlin in the spring of 2012, where it will be presented in collaboration with the ANCB Metropolitan Laboratory in Pfefferberg, a former industrial complex. In winter 2012–13, the first three-city cycle will be completed when the BMW Guggenheim Lab travels to Mumbai. The Mumbai presentation will be organized in collaboration with the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum.
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